Species NameSymphysodon
Common NameDiscus
Care LevelIntermediate to Advanced
Lifespan10-15 years
Adult Size8-10 inches
DietCarnivore, with occasional plant matter
Minimum Tank Size50 gallons
Temperature82°F – 88°F (28°C – 31°C)
Water ConditionspH 6.0-7.5, Soft to slightly hard

About the Discus – Species Summary

Hailing from the majestic waters of the Amazon River Basin, the Discus is often referred to as the “King of the Aquarium” due to its unparalleled beauty and grace. Characterized by its distinct disc-shaped body and vibrant colors, the Discus holds a place of honor in the hearts of many aquarium enthusiasts. Though they might be a bit challenging for beginners, with the right care and environment, these aquatic wonders can truly elevate the visual appeal of any freshwater tank.

The Discus is not just about aesthetics; they have personalities too. They can be curious, often observing their surroundings and even recognizing their owners. However, their sensitivity to water conditions and specific dietary requirements means they are better suited for intermediate to advanced aquarists.

Discus Lifespan

With proper care and an ideal environment, a Discus can lead a long, fulfilling life, often ranging from 10 to 15 years. Their lifespan is testament to their resilience, especially when one considers the myriad of conditions they can encounter in captivity. Ensuring a clean environment, a balanced diet, and routine health checks are integral to their longevity.


The Discus fish is an embodiment of nature’s artistry. Their broad, flat bodies serve as a canvas for a myriad of colors and patterns, from vibrant blues, fiery reds, to golden yellows. Varieties like the Blue Diamond, Red Turquoise, and Golden Discus each have their unique charm, but they all share the same mesmeric, round shape that gave them their name. Their long, flowing fins only add to their elegance, making them a sight to behold in any aquarium setting.

Average Size

As they mature, Discus can attain sizes between 8 to 10 inches in diameter. Their growth rate and maximum size are influenced by factors like diet, tank size, and overall care. Regular feeding and a spacious environment can ensure they reach their full potential.

Discus Care

Tank Size

Given their potential size and social nature, Discus demand a spacious environment. A 50-gallon tank is the recommended minimum, but if one plans to keep a group, even larger tanks are preferable. A bigger tank helps in maintaining stable water parameters, which is crucial for the health and well-being of these sensitive creatures.

How To Set Up Their Tank

Replicating their natural Amazonian habitat, a Discus tank should have soft substrates, driftwood, and plants like Amazon Swords and Java Fern. The tank setup should strike a balance between providing hiding spots and open swimming areas. Using peat or almond leaves can also help in softening the water and adding beneficial tannins.

Lighting Requirements

Soft, subdued lighting is ideal for Discus as it mimics their natural habitat and helps in showcasing their vibrant colors. If the tank is planted, ensure the lighting supports plant growth but isn’t too intense for the Discus.


Discus thrive in slightly acidic to neutral pH levels, ideally between 6.0 and 7.5. Consistent monitoring and adjustments, when necessary, ensure the fish remain stress-free.


Warm waters are the natural home for Discus. Maintaining a temperature range between 82°F and 88°F is essential. Any sudden changes in temperature can be detrimental, so heaters and thermometers are crucial for a Discus tank.

Water Parameters

Soft to slightly hard water is ideal. Consistency in water parameters, especially with regards to ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates, is of the essence. Routine water changes and a high-quality filtration system aid in achieving this.

Disease Potential

While Discus are relatively hardy, they can be susceptible to common fish ailments, especially when stressed. Regular health checks, quarantine measures for new fish, and maintaining ideal water conditions are essential in preventing diseases.

Food & Diet

Discus are primarily carnivorous, but they do appreciate occasional plant matter. A varied diet of high-quality pellets, flakes, and live or frozen foods like bloodworms, brine shrimp, and beef heart is recommended. Their dietary needs change as they grow, so it’s essential to adjust food sizes and types accordingly.

Behavior and Temperament

Discus are generally peaceful and can be quite social. They thrive in groups and often form hierarchies within them. Their curious nature means they often interact with their environment and tank mates, making them engaging aquarium residents.

Tank Mates

Choosing the right tank mates is crucial. Peaceful, non-aggressive fish that thrive in similar water parameters are ideal. Cardinal Tetras, Rummy Nose Tetras, and smaller Corydoras are excellent choices. Avoid keeping them with aggressive or fin-nipping species.


Breeding Discus can be a rewarding endeavor. They form monogamous pairs and are attentive parents. A separate breeding tank with slightly acidic water, a heater, and a flat surface (like a cone or slate) for the female to lay eggs is ideal. After fertilization, both parents take turns guarding the eggs, which usually hatch in about three days. Post-hatching, the fry feed on the mucus secreted by their parents’ skin, showcasing the remarkable parental care exhibited by Discus.

Discus FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)