Betta (Siamese Fighting Fish)

Species NameBetta splendens
Common NameBetta, Siamese Fighting Fish
Care LevelBeginner to Intermediate
Lifespan3-5 years
Adult Size2.5 to 3 inches
Minimum Tank Size2.5 gallons (5 gallons recommended)
Temperature76°F – 82°F (24°C – 28°C)
Water ConditionsSlightly acidic (pH 6.5-7.5), soft to medium hardness

About the Betta – Species Summary

Betta fish, popularly known as Siamese Fighting Fish, originate from the warm, stagnant waters of Southeast Asia, particularly in Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia. Belonging to the gourami family, their name ‘Betta’ is derived from an ancient clan of warriors, aptly portraying their aggressive nature. Over the years, Betta fish have garnered admiration worldwide for their striking appearance, resilient nature, and ease of care. They are frequently the first choice for novice aquarium hobbyists, yet also hold a special place in the hearts of seasoned enthusiasts.

Bettas have an incredible range of colors and fin patterns, resulting from extensive selective breeding. Their ability to breathe atmospheric air using a unique organ called the labyrinth allows them to survive in low-oxygen environments, although they still require clean water to thrive.

Betta Lifespan

Typically, Bettas live between 3 to 5 years when cared for in optimal conditions. Their lifespan is a testament to their adaptability, but proper care, diet, and environment are crucial for ensuring they live out their full potential. Although Bettas are often found in small bowls or cups in pet stores, providing them with an adequately sized tank, clean water, and a balanced diet can significantly increase their life expectancy.

In captivity, factors like consistent water temperature, low stress, and an absence of aggressive tank mates can positively influence their longevity. Thus, by understanding the Betta’s specific needs and creating an environment conducive to its well-being, one can maximize its lifespan.


Bettas are renowned for their dazzling array of colors, ranging from deep blues and vibrant reds to pastels and even whites. Their beauty is further accentuated by their extravagant fins, which, depending on the type, can be long and flowing or short and spiky. There are various tail forms like the Veil Tail, Crown Tail, Half Moon, and many more, each offering a distinct aesthetic.

The male Betta is especially flamboyant, with long fins and brighter colors, while the female is generally more subdued in appearance with shorter fins. Their expressive eyes and the way they flare their gills when threatened or during courtship displays add to their captivating charm.

Average Size

Bettas typically grow to an adult size of about 2.5 to 3 inches. Males, due to their extended fin lengths, might appear larger than females, but their body sizes are relatively comparable.

Betta Care

Tank Size

Although frequently kept in tiny containers, Bettas thrive best in tanks that are a minimum of 2.5 gallons, with 5 gallons or more being ideal. Such a setup not only provides them with ample space but also ensures better water quality and stability.

How To Set Up Their Tank

When setting up a Betta tank, it’s crucial to emulate their natural environment. They prefer calm waters, so strong currents should be avoided. A soft substrate, coupled with live plants like java fern or anubias, provides them with hiding spots and resting areas. Smooth decorations and caves can also be added, ensuring there are no sharp edges that could damage their delicate fins.

Lighting Requirements

Bettas aren’t particularly demanding when it comes to lighting. A moderate level of lighting is sufficient, which not only showcases their vibrant colors but also supports plant growth. Too intense light might stress the Betta, so it’s beneficial to provide some shaded areas within the tank.


Bettas prefer slightly acidic water with a pH level ranging from 6.5 to 7.5. Regular monitoring and adjustments, if needed, will ensure they remain in optimal health.


Being tropical fish, Bettas require warm water temperatures between 76°F and 82°F (24°C – 28°C). A stable temperature is vital, so it’s recommended to use a heater, especially during colder months.

Water Parameters

Soft to medium hardness is ideal for Bettas. Implementing regular water changes (20-30% weekly) helps in maintaining water clarity and optimal conditions. It’s also essential to monitor ammonia, nitrites, and nitrates to ensure water quality.

Disease Potential

Bettas can be prone to several diseases like fin rot, Ich, and velvet. Regularly inspecting the fish for any signs of disease, ensuring clean water, and providing a balanced diet can mitigate most health issues. If any symptoms are observed, early diagnosis and treatment are key.

Food & Diet

Being carnivores, Bettas thrive on a diet rich in protein. High-quality Betta-specific pellets serve as a staple diet, but occasional treats like brine shrimp, bloodworms, and daphnia are beneficial for their health and color vibrancy.

Behavior and Temperament

Male Bettas are notorious for their aggressiveness towards other males, hence the moniker “Fighting Fish”. This aggressive nature requires them to be housed separately from other male Bettas. However, they are generally peaceful towards other species, displaying curiosity and occasionally flaring when feeling threatened or territorial.

Tank Mates

While male Bettas should not be kept with other males, they can coexist with peaceful, non-fin-nipping species. Suitable companions include neon tetras, harlequin rasboras, and snails. However, tank mates should be chosen with caution, ensuring the Betta isn’t stressed or at risk of injury.


Breeding Bettas is a fascinating process. The male builds a bubble nest on the water’s surface. After an intricate courtship dance, the female releases eggs, which the male fertilizes and places into the bubble nest. Post-breeding, the female should be removed, as the male becomes protective of the nest. Once the fry hatch, they require specific care, including a diet of infusoria or specially formulated fry foods.

Betta FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)